Cretaquarium – Θαλασσόκοσμος
March 21, 2016
March 21, 2016
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Theriso – Zourva – Meskla

Therisso is a historic mountain town of Chania municipality of the prefecture of Crete and played a significant role in the various revolutionary movements of Crete during the 19th century and it received its name in 1905 the homonymous movement against Prince George residency.

Therisso is built on the northwestern foothills of the White Mountains at an altitude of 580 meters, in the southern part of the municipal unit at Therisos. It is situated 16 km. South of the city of Chania. Near the village is the gorge “Eleftherios Venizelos” (or gorge Therisos), with a total length of 6 km.

From the early 19th century onwards, Therisso because of its natural fortified position, was an important center of various revolutionary movements of Crete. During the revolution in 1821, the village became a field of hard battles between Greek revolutionaries and Ottoman troops. Indeed, both in August 1821 and August 1822, it was destroyed first by Turkish-forces and then by the Egyptian army. When the English traveler Robert Pashley, visited the island in 1834, in Therisso lived 82 families, of which 80 were Christian and two Muslim. During the revolution of 1866 – 1869, Therisso was again hard clashed: in late September of 1866 the settlement, which intermediate was evacuated from the civilian population, was set on fire by the forces of Mustafa Pasha. A few days later, there took place two other battles. Initially, the rebels forced the Aliakes of Mustafa Pasha to retreat. Then, in place Kambia, north of the village, there was a new battle between rebels and 150 soldiers ignoring the retreat of the main body of Mustafa to Malaxa, approached Therisso. On March 26, 1867, was held in Theriso an official glorification of 2000 armed (Cretan and volunteers from Greece) of John Zymbrakakis. In mid-December 1867, the Ottomans succeeded in occupying Therisso, which was abandoned by the Greeks due to the need to strengthen the front of Vamos, but in January 1868 due to the weather and the attacks of the rebels, the Ottoman troops withdrew from the village. Later, after the suppression of the revolution, the Ottoman authorities established military facilities in the village. According to official figures of the Ottoman census of 1881, the village had 385 inhabitants, all Greeks (188 men and 197 women), while in 1894, according to the assessment of officer of the Greek army, Nikostratos Kalomenopoulos in the village lived 90 families. In 1900 the census conducted by the Cretan State, found in Therisso 431 inhabitants. In June 1904, in a failed movement during the residency of Prince George, fled to Theriso temporarily a small guerrilla force, before turning to the plain of Chania. A few months later, on March 10, 1905, Therisso seated the revolutionary government of “United Opposition,” with Venizelos, Manou and Foumis against the residency of Prince George and for the Union of Crete with Greece. Two days later, the revolutionary forces prevailed in scuffle small hybrid force between gendarmerie and Italian army. During the Occupation, Therisso was the headquarters of ELAS Chania. Indeed, on November 7, 1943, in a farmhouse near the village was signed a cooperation agreement between the resistance EAM Crete and EEC organizations. From Theriso came the fighters of the revolution of the 1821, Chali brothers (Basil, John and Tony), the chieftain’s brothers Poulaka (the important Macedonian fighters John Poulaka and his brother Basil, who participated in the Valkan Wars as head volunteers) and the actress Eleftheria Vidakis. An important monument of the village is the sacred temple of St. George, which dates back to the second half of the 16th century. In Therisso there are also two museums: the first is founded in 1985, a History and Folklore Museum which operates during the summer season and is housed in the building that served as headquarters of the revolution of 1905. Among other there are guns exposed, documents, photographs and personal belongings of Eleftherios Venizelos. Meanwhile, in 2003 he inaugurated the local Museum of National Resistance, which features weapons, fighter’s objects, newspaper clippings and other exhibits relating to the period 1941-1945.

Meskla is a village in the municipality Platanias, Chania a regional unit, in the West Crete. It is built at an altitude of 200 meters, in the northern foothills of the Lefka Ory, on a plateau of the river valley Keritis. It is 21 km from Chania and 4 km from the village Fournes. In the past it was a community of Kydonia province which included except a Meskla also the village Zourva. In the area of ​​the village are preserved cyclopean walls and houses that are carved in the rocks. In the position “Elliniko”, south of the village, there are ruins of a fortress of the classical era and in are of “Vysaloporos” the ruins of a classic settlement. The name of the ancient city that was located in the village is not known. Sightseers Paslei and Deffner believe that there was the ancient Rizinia, but in the early 20th century the ruins of Rizinia where discovered in Patelles of Prinia. Paul Faure believes that it was the ancient city of Kerea, as in the name of the river Keritis that springs there. The village is known for the role it had in the Kantanoleou Revolution of 1527, when it was the seat of the Chancellery of the rebels. After the suppression of the revolution and the death of Kantanoleou and his comrades, the Venetians gave away animals and objects of the residents to the soldiers, while in the mountains around Meskla they hung 200 rebels. Then they burned Meskla, so the village is not mentioned in the Venetian census of the late 16th and 17th century. The village was again inhabited the Ottoman period. In the Egyptian census of 1834 there lived 82 Christian families and 3 Turkish. The village was destroyed once again during the revolution of 1866, as there where the headquarters of the revolutionary Zourva Assembly leaded by Zymbrakakis.

Zourva (Local Community Meskla – Municipal Section Mousouros) belongs to PLATANIA municipality of Regional Unity Chania located in the Region of Crete, in accordance with the administrative division of Greece as amended by “Kallikrates”. The official name is “Zourva”. The seat of the municipality is Gerani and belongs to the geographical region of Crete. In the administrative division of Greece according to the plan “Kapodistrias”, until 2010, belonged Zourva to the Local Apartment Meskla, former Mousouros Municipality of Chania Prefecture. Zourva has an altitude of 548 meters above the sea level with a very wild beauty that is worth visiting.

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